By Dr Eldah Onsomu and Mr Lawrence Njoroge, KIPPRA
In November 2019, Kenya hosted the 25th International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD25) which was first held in Cairo in 1994. The aim of the conference was to assess the achievements made by the 179 governments represented in advancing people’s rights and choices with particular focus on: empowerment of women; reduction of infant and child mortality to a rate below 35 per 1000 live births and under-five mortality rate below 45 per 1,000; eradication of gender-based violence and any abuses of women rights including female genital mutilation (FGM); reduction of maternal mortality disparities within countries and between geographical regions, socio-economic and ethnic groups; and improvement of gender equality and access to reproductive and sexual health services including family planning.
Women in Kenya have remained behind their male counterparts in many spheres, including access to information. This is besides the societal expectation of women’s roles as caretakers, educators, health providers, farmers, and as part of the labour market, inclusive of the informal sector.
The Constitution of Kenya in 2010 ushered in a decentralized system of governance comprising a national government and 47 county governments. This forms a two-tiered system of government in which the sovereign power of the people is exercised at the national and county levels.
Kenya’s budgetary needs have been increasing over the years partly due to high spending on infrastructural projects. A challenge that the economy keeps grappling with is the shortfall in revenues collected against increasing public expenditure needs. This has necessitated borrowing from both external and domestic market as a way of bridging the financing deficit. Borrowing from the domestic market has largely supported financing of recurrent expenditure.
Management of assets and liabilities is one of the key pillars of a Public Finance Management (PFM) system. Effectiveness in management of public assets ensures that public investments provide value for money, assets are recorded and managed efficiently, risks are identified, and debts and guarantees are prudently planned, approved and monitored. Good practice in management of assets and liabilities includes fiscal risk reporting, public investment management, public asset management and debt management.
Public Financial Management (PFM) is all about resource mobilization and expenditure management in the public sector. It is, therefore, an integral part of the development process.
Suffice is to indicate that the involvement of the public sector in providing for various segments of society, including the under privileged, arises from the lack of motivation, incentives and moral sentiments of the private sector to do the same.
The first Russia-Africa Summit took place in the Black Sea resort of Sochi, Russia on 23–24 October 2019 in which the Russian and African leaders discussed strategic cooperation between the two sides on areas of mutual interest, including trade, investment, energy, development cooperation, technical cooperation, building partnerships and identifying new areas and forms of cooperation.
Trade in counterfeit and contraband goods is becoming a major global challenge. A report on Economic Impacts of Counterfeiting and Piracy indicates that the total value of counterfeit and pirated goods stood at US$ 2.3 trillion in 2017, which was greater than the gross domestic product of 178 countries in the world. The report also shows that these values are likely to rise further to US$ 2.81 trillion by the year 2022.
Community policing is anchored on the premise that partnership between policing agencies and the communities they operate in is crucial in turning the tide against crime. Available reports indicate that policing agencies require support from local communities to prevent and/or reduce crime.
Bee keeping is an important economic activity in the arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) in Kenya. ASALs contribute 80% of honey production. Non-ASAL areas also practice bee keeping.